The article concludes with an examination of the laws used to attempt prevention of female genital mutilation. The infibulation provides a more long-term serious effect in the health of women because of interference with menstrual and urine flow. Violence Against Women , World Watch, vol. The purpose of this article seemed to be to explore the cross-cultural views of the practice of female genital mutilation. It concentrates on the practice of genital mutilation in Africa.

Being a woman in fear of genital mutilation is often not enough to qualify. Unlike male circumcision, which only removes the foreskin of the penis, female circumcision is an invasive, physically and emotionally damaging procedure. Finally, the author speaks about the practice of female genital mutilation on American soil. For example, the practice of female genital mutilation is justified as being a religious practice. However, the author notes that the way female genital mutilation in viewed has an effect on the treatment is given in asylum law. Efforts by the government have not proven very effective.

annotated bibliography on fgm

There have been reports that the number of genital mutilations have been decreasing in the last couple of years. The author’s argument is very persuasive for granting asylum to females subject to genital mutilation.

It also shows that there are many health risks and complications that can be involved in the practice. News We Can Use provides women-focused news: To enter adulthood, girls must be relieved of their male partthe clitoris. The reader annotayed also be able to understand the need for educating women of the world about their bodies, so that bilbiography process can be stopped.

There are two main categories of female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. Doctor Toubia describes in detail the actual process of female genital mutilation. They also explain who is at risk for being subjected to this treatment as well as the short and long term consequences because of it.


Women are still be controlled by sex in several countries. They wanted one that was more likely to convey the pain and horror of the procedure. It provided that there are no health benefits associated with this procedure, rather many harmful health risks. It is seen as conforming to society and a cultural integration of people. In the introduction of this article, the author gives a gruesome case history of a young girl’s experience with female genital mutilation.

Female Genital Mutilation

This article also examines the Western response to this practice. Honor Killing in Pakistan annotated bibliography compiled by Julie D.

However, the author argues that female genital mutilation is not rooted in religious doctrines, but in a desire to control women. She examines the actual practice of the oj, and the justifications advanced by its supporters. Send questions and comments to: The response of African women is also explored in this article.

annotated bibliography on fgm

As ofthe United States still refused to legally expand the refugee status to women seeking to escape female genital mutilation. They explain that there is usually a set person designated to perform all of the circumcisions bibliograph also acts as a midwife during the births in the community. Even more difficult, according to the author, is determining the rights of consenting adult women, some of whom annorated to be reinfibulated after childbirth. However, the author shows that often the reasons asserted are not persuasive annotatee for allowing this practice to continue.

Female genital mutilation is both a health issue and a women’s rights issue. Once the child is born, the woman often goes through a process of reinfibulation. It is seen as disgusting if they are not virgins before they get married.


It begins with an examination of a case in which a woman from Nigeria sought not to be deported from the United States so she could protect her two daughters from the horrors of mutilation. She says that even though the book is fiction, it allows everyone who is not a part of a culture that practices female genital mutilation to imagine what to many of United States is beyond the scope of imagination. Women can have long lasting psychological effects from the bib,iography as well as many sexual effects and complications.

The article also examines the possible defenses that may be raised to criminal prosecution. These two women were very successful in presenting all of the harmful effects of female genital mutilation by getting first hand account from women that it had previously been preformed on.

Female Genital Mutilation

Finally the United States is providing financial support to organizations in Africa that are trying to end the practice of female genital mutilation. These facts included the description of what female circumcision is as well as many other factors associated with it. This article examines the practice of female genital mutilation, describing the different types of procedures used. Links and Annotated Bibliogrraphy.

It was very interesting to see all of the different organizations come together to present the information about this horrible practice.